" A wealth of information..."

"1169 And Counting is a wealth of information on our Republican past and present , and demonstrates how the Irish political landscape , like that of any nation, will never be a black and white issue..."

(From the ‘e-Thursday’ section of the ‘Business Week’ supplement of the ‘Irish Independent’ , 21st August 2008.)



IRISH BLOG AWARDS 2017 - ooops! It seems that our entry application was "not completed in time to be considered.." (?) and, as such, we are not now in the running. But we wish all the best to the successful entrants and to the organisers, and we hope all goes well for them on the day!


Saturday, March 13, 2004

PATRICK EGAN - founder of 'The Land League' : 1841 - 1919 .......


....... In 1880 , the new British Chief Secretary in Ireland , William E. Forester , ordered the arrest of the leadership of the ' New Departure' group - that organisation was , at the time , in a 'head-to-head' conflict with the Brits over the issue of 'rents' .......


Key figures in the 'New Departure' group were rounded-up ; Patrick Egan , Joseph Biggar , Charles Stewart Parnell and John Dillon were amongst those arrested . The 'trial' of the leadership began on 28th December 1880 but collapsed on 23rd January 1881 , and the men were released . William E. Forester strongly objected to the release of the men and attempted to get the verdict overturned - when he failed in this endeavour , he resigned his position in disgust .

The then British Prime Minister , William Gladstone , had his nephew [by marriage] , a 'Lord' Frederick Cavendish , appointed as the new British Chief Secretary in Ireland ; Cavendish , in turn , appointed Thomas Burke , an Irishman ,[a 'Castle-Catholic' ie a 'wannabe Brit'] as his new Under-Secretary .....

(MORE LATER).



WHERE MOUNTAINY MEN HAVE SOWN :

war and peace in rebel Cork ,
in the turbulent years 1916-21.

By Micheal O'Suilleabhain : published 1965.


BALLINGEARY BARRACKS .....


".......We were cycling out of Ballingeary , having failed in our mission to draw the Brits out of their barracks . On looking up the road we saw two RIC men on bicycles coming our way - we split up and took both sides of the road ......."


" As they came near us , we dismounted and closed in towards the middle of the road . They had to walk between our lines . We saw at once that they were unarmed . They wore only their bare tight-fitting tunics . They had chanced a run out for the fresh air of the glen road , away from the barracks and the Black and Tans . They passed slowly through our lines , expecting every moment to be stopped . Our coats were opened and they could see our guns here and there , but no gun was drawn . We had a certain amount of sympathy for them . Their faces wore a hunted look . Their own people had turned against them . They were trying to hold on to a job they did not like .

We were hunted enough ourselves , and weak enough , but our own people were on our side . That was the difference , and I'm sure those two RIC men envied us . In any case , we would not be mean with them , and since they did not carry arms we would not subject them to the indignity of a search . No word was spoken and they passed through in silence . Early in the afternoon of the following day , the Black and Tans brought Jer Carthy to the barracks . During their short time in the 'Gaeltacht'(Irish-speaking area) they had learned the use of the suffix which denotes contempt . The Black and Tans now addressed Jer as "Jereen"......."

(MORE LATER).



SEAN MacBRIDE : 1904 - 1988 .......

The following information was sent to '1169....' in mid-February last by a 'J.D. , Isle Of Man ' ; we reproduce it here , in 15 parts . 'J.D.' assures us that he/she got the article from an American newspaper , in the late 1980's/early 1990's .

(6 of 15).


The following year (1923), Sean MacBride was one of the thousands of Irish Republican prisoners still jailed by the Free State authorities . He was one of the group working on a tunnel out of Mountjoy Jail which was discovered . While being transferred to Kilmainham Jail , Sean MacBride and Mick Price jumped out of a lorry and escaped after the driver got lost and stopped to get his bearings !

At liberty throughout most of the 1920's , Sean MacBride continued to organise IRA arms shipments and travel the country visiting IRA Units . The founding of Fianna Fail (1926) paved the way for the political upheavals of the early 1930's . It was a decade when the Republican Movement was to be increasingly pushed onto the sidelines as it searched in vain for a political strategy to regain the ground lost to Fianna Fail . The short-lived 'Saor Eire' , of 1931 , was headed by Sean MacBride but never got off the ground after it was denounced by the Catholic Hierarchy and banned by the Free Staters in Leinster House .

When other Irish Republicans tried again to assert the socialism of the Republican Movement , Sean MacBride , with the mainstream IRA leadership , opposed them ....

(MORE LATER).


Friday, March 12, 2004

PATRICK EGAN - founder of 'The Land League' : 1841 - 1919 .......


....... Patrick Egan and others resigned from the Irish Republican Brotherhood in August 1877 over the condemnation of the use of politics within a revolutionary organisation . However , within two years , the IRB was involved in the ' New Departure ' grouping , a 'broad-front' organisation of different groups which campaigned for fair treatment for the Irish .......


In October 1879 , Patrick Egan was appointed as Treasurer of one of the 'New Departure' groups , Michael Davitt's 'Land League' ; the British were alarmed that this (publicly-viewed) 'respectable' body was being controlled by those that the Brits viewed as , at best , "suspect" and , at worst , "complete outlaws"-- the then new British Chief Secretary in Ireland , William E. Forester , made his move ...

In 1880 , with the Land War now in full swing (ie the 'New Departure' group was flexing its muscles and had instructed its members and supporters to pay no rent at all , but the Brits had fought back - their 'Land Courts' were fixing rents which most 'tenants' could just about afford - a "divide and conquer" tactic), British Chief Secretary Forester hoped to divide the Irish further and ordered the arrest of the leadership of the 'New Departure' group .......

(MORE LATER).



WHERE MOUNTAINY MEN HAVE SOWN :

war and peace in rebel Cork ,
in the turbulent years 1916-21.

By Micheal O'Suilleabhain : published 1965.


BALLINGEARY BARRACKS .....


".......A local newspaper , ' The Leader ' , had published a parody of local RIC Sergeant Appleby , who had fined a local man for speaking Irish ......."


" Sergeant Appleby learned to mend his hand and later did not give the enemy that information which would make things difficult for the IRA . He definitely saved some local men from the attentions of his own force , the RIC . He continued on with the latter , but he took things as easy as he could . Now he strolled about , his hands in his pockets , his eyes on the ground . We watched for a while and then someone coughed to attract his attention . He looked up quickly and saw the long row of heads and shoulders above him .

Some of the old arrogance latent in him returned . He squared his shoulders and fixed on us a stern and questioning look . Had he resumed his exercise we would have walked away . But he did not . He maintained his posture and his attitude indicated to us that we were quite long enough in the vicinity . But we were in no hurry ...

" He'll read the Riot Act, " someone remarked . My brother Pat spoke : " Clear away out of that ! " he said . Sergeant Appleby shook himself indidnantly . Imagine it ! How the times had deteriorated ! An Officer of the Royal Irish Constabulary being ordered in to his own barracks by an unknown civilian , leaning at his ease on the village bridge , in the company , doubtless , of other disaffected persons ! It was intolerable . But the civilian drew forth a long Webley revolver as if to second his demand . In a way that surprised us , Sergeant Appleby got inside that door and we heard a heavy bolt going home .

We mounted our pushbikes and turned left into the road to the glen . It was straight for the first three hundred yards . Scarcely had we covered one hundred yards when two RIC men on bicycles rounded the distant bend in front of us . In file , half of us took each side of the road ......."

(MORE LATER).



SEAN MacBRIDE : 1904 - 1988 .......

The following information was sent to '1169....' in mid-February last by a 'J.D. , Isle Of Man ' ; we reproduce it here , in 15 parts . 'J.D.' assures us that he/she got the article from an American newspaper , in the late 1980's/early 1990's .

(5 of 15).


During the Treaty negotiations , Sean MacBride accompanied the Irish delegation to London . He was not there to advise on the negotiations , as some commentators have suggested , but as Michael Collins' aide-de-camp , leader of an IRA Unit sent to guard the delegation and cover their retreat if the conference broke down . He did see clearly how the negotiations were conducted and the growing influence of the British side on Collins and Arthur Griffith . It was Sean MacBride who retold the story of how Michael Collins was taken aside by Lloyd George who showed him a map of the British 'Empire' , put his arm around him and said " Come on , Mike , why don't you come in and help us run the world ! "

Sean MacBride also recalled the mistakes and misjudgements of Irish Republicans in this period : the failure of de Valera's leadership ; the disunity of the anti-Treaty IRA ; the failure to recognise the centrality of partition : Sean MacBride said - " However , remember , I had no opportunity of making my views known , I was young . I was there to serve , and not to discuss policy matters ."

Sean MacBride was part of the Irish Republican garrison in the Four Courts when it was bombarded by the Free Staters . He was later sharing a cell in Mountjoy Jail with Rory O'Connor when the IRA leader was taken out and shot with his three comrades , Joe McKelvey , Liam Mellows and Dick Barrett , on December 8th , 1922 .

(MORE LATER).

(Apologies for that bad link the other day - bad young'fellas get distracted easy and only do a half-job ; that's what happened when our 'Junior' wrote-up that bad link to here . And our Sharon published it without checking .Tsk ,tsk ....)


Thursday, March 11, 2004

PATRICK EGAN - founder of 'The Land League' : 1841 - 1919 .......



.......In August 1877 , the leadership of the Irish Republican Brotherhood decided that its members should back-off from being so heavily involved in politics ; however , the leadership was divided on the issue .......


Patrick Egan , John O'Connor Power , Joseph Biggar and John Barry refused to accept the decision and all four men resigned from the IRB . However , within two years , the IRB was to change its position ; the then leader of the (constitutional) 'Home Rule Party' , Charles Stewart Parnell (possibly sensing an opportunity to divide the 'opposition') launched , in 1879 , in conjunction with John Devoy and Michael Davitt , a group known as the 'New Departure' - this broad-front group consisted of different organisations co-operating with each other ; the IRB , the Home Rule Party and Michael Davitt's 'Land League' .

The 'New Departure' grouping was established on 20th April , 1879 , at Irishtown , County Mayo , and was almost immediately condemned by the Catholic Church - many Parish priests of the day were 'landlords' and stood to lose financially if this New Departure were to win its demand in relation to the Land Acts position : the ' Three F's ' -- Fixity of Tenure , Fair Rents and the rights of Free Sale .

Hardly the stuff of modern-day revolution , but in those days (ie late 19th Century Ireland - only 125 years ago!) it was enough to strike terror into the hearts and minds of the establishent .....

(MORE LATER).



WHERE MOUNTAINY MEN HAVE SOWN :

war and peace in rebel Cork ,
in the turbulent years 1916-21.

By Micheal O'Suilleabhain : published 1965.


BALLINGEARY BARRACKS .....


".......The twelve of us were on Ballingeary Bridge , hoping that some from the British Barracks would have followed us . Then we noticed RIC Sergeant Appleby - he was infamous in the area for fining those that spoke Irish , and a local newspaper had published a parody about him over the issue ....... "


" Oh , Paddy dear and did you hear the news thats going 'round -
speak Irish to a policeman now , and you'll be fined five pound .
Sure the light of English learning soon our island will illume ,
for it's fining Irish speakers are the J.P.'s of Macroom .

I met with Sergeant Appleby and I took him by the hand ,
and asked him if the Ballingeary folk the olden tongue had banned -
'Ah, no' , said he , 'they speak it still , and fill my heart with gloom ,
and fifteen miles away , alas , are the J.P.'s of Macroom'.

Now Applebys and grand J.P.'s , who dwell in this dear land ,
must put aside their upstart pride and Irish understand -
we mean to strive and keep alive our tongue 'till crack of doom ,
so to pot with all , both great and small , the J.P.'s of Macroom ! "

(MORE LATER).



SEAN MacBRIDE : 1904 - 1988 .......

The following information was sent to '1169....' in mid-February last by a 'J.D. , Isle Of Man ' ; we reproduce it here , in 15 parts . 'J.D.' assures us that he/she got the article from an American newspaper , in the late 1980's/early 1990's .

(4 of 15).


From organising IRA Active Service Units , Sean MacBride moved on to helping obtain arms shipments for the IRA from the Continent . The success of these activities and his assessment of the morale and capabilities of the Irish Republican Army led him to oppose the Truce with the British when it came in the summer of 1921 :

" I felt from the experience we were gaining in purchasing arms that we were on the threshold of being able to mount a much larger campaign than we had mounted until then . I felt that , with the arrival of these guns , we could step up the fight considerably . I also considered that the morale of the organisation was good and that there was no weakness in the determination of the Volunteers to see the thing through . "

Sean MacBride continued - " I was therefore very much against the Truce , when it was declared . I was completely against it - violently against it ."

(MORE LATER).






Wednesday, March 10, 2004

PATRICK EGAN - founder of 'The Land League' : 1841 - 1919 .......


.......at 32 years young (in 1873) , the Treasurer of the Irish Republican Brotherhood , Patrick Egan , watched with interest as Donegal lawyer Isaac Butt established the 'Home Rule League' to challenge the Brits , constitutionally , regarding the position of Ireland in their 'Empire' .......


The establishment of the 'Home Rule League' was also noted with interest by the other members of the Irish Republican Brotherhood leadership ; it was decided that Patrick Egan and three other members of the Supreme Council of the Irish Republican Brotherhood - John O'Connor Power , Joseph Biggar and John Barry - would join the 'Home Rule League' , with the intention of 'steering' that group in the direction of the IRB .

Other members of the IRB were encouraged to join the 'League' as well , and a time-scale was set in which to completely infiltrate the 'League' - three years . However , that decision to infiltrate Isaac Butt's organisation was to 'backfire' on the Irish Republican Brotherhood later on ...

The 'three-year' period of infiltration ended in 1876 ; in August 1877 , the IRB Supreme Council held a meeting at which a resolution condemning the over-involvement in politics (ie political motions etc rather than military action) of IRB members was discussed ; after heated arguments , the resolution was agreed and passed by the IRB Council . Not everyone accepted that decision .......

(MORE LATER).



WHERE MOUNTAINY MEN HAVE SOWN :

war and peace in rebel Cork ,
in the turbulent years 1916-21.

By Micheal O'Suilleabhain : published 1965.


BALLINGEARY BARRACKS .....


"....... The Brits in Ballingeary Barracks had been spooked by us ; they shut and locked the door and pulled-down the steel shutters . Rifles were pointed out at us ....... "


" We got our bicycles and walked off with them . Stopping on the bridge , we leaned them against its northern wall . Then we stood along the southern side of it , facing the gable of the barracks and the rear portion of that building . Our arms folded , we rested on the parapet . We had some faint hope that the garrison , or some portion of it , might follow us as far as the bridge , even if only to verify that we had gone . In that case we would attack them at the bend , and maybe take a few guns from them . It would be some compensation for a wearying day , and enliven us on our journey home . But again we waited in vain .

We were about to turn away in disgust when a door facing us opened and the old RIC Sergeant came out . His name was Appleby . A few years previously he had gained notoriety by arresting Claude Chevasse , a scholar , for speaking Irish to him . Claude Chevasse was brought before a bench of magistrates in Macroom and fined five pounds , a large sum in those days . I remember reading a parody in 'The Leader' newspaper about the incident ......."

(MORE LATER).



SEAN MacBRIDE : 1904 - 1988 .......

The following information was sent to '1169....' in mid-February last by a 'J.D. , Isle Of Man ' ; we reproduce it here , in 15 parts . 'J.D.' assures us that he/she got the article from an American newspaper , in the late 1980's/early 1990's .

(3 of 15).


When Sean MacBride returned to Ireland with Maud Gonne in 1918 he joined Na Fianna Eireann. Later in that year(1918), when he had not yet reached his fifteenth birthday , he joined Oglaigh na hEireann . He was an Officer in B Company of the Third Battalion , Dublin Brigade , IRA , which operated an active service unit in the south city during the Black and Tan War . Attacks were carried out on the Black and Tans and Auxiliaries as they travelled to and from Beggars Bush Barracks .

So successful was the IRA Active Service Unit that Michael Collins asked Sean MacBride to act as an IRA Organiser , travelling to boost Rebel Units in parts of the country where there was little action . Sean MacBride later described the role -

- " The last thing any of them wanted was activity in their area . It was alright if it was Cork , Tipperary or Dublin , but let ye leave Wicklow alone . I circumvented all that by putting them out with some of my tough guys in the one operation . After that I had them : there was no going back . "

(MORE LATER).


Tuesday, March 09, 2004

PATRICK EGAN - founder of 'The Land League' : 1841 - 1919 .......


....... Ireland 1841 - a forced mass exodus began in Ireland - the population fell by two million people in the following one-hundred-and-ten years . Patrick Egan was born in the same year that that exodus began .......


Patrick Egan was born in Ballymahon in County Longford in 1841 . The Egan family moved to Dublin and , as a teenager , he was only 17 years young when the Irish Republican Brotherhood was founded (on 17th March 1858)- he joined the new organisation . Even though he was by now working full-time (in the 'North City Milling Company' in Dublin) he soon became a valuable asset to the Irish Republican Brotherhood , and was appointed to the position of Treasurer of its Supreme Council .

Two years before he joined the IRB ( ie when he was just 15 , in 1856 ), Patrick Egan would have witnessed one of the founders of the then soon-to-be established IRB , James Stephens , walking (for the most part) the length and breadth of Ireland , canvassing the potential for revolution in the country ; that was in 1856 , and James Stephens covered more than three-thousand miles , most of it on foot . When Patrick Egan was 32 years young (in 1873), a well-known lawyer of the time , Isaac Butt , a Donegal man , established the 'Home Rule League' to agitate regarding the position of Ireland within the then British 'Empire' ........

(MORE LATER).



WHERE MOUNTAINY MEN HAVE SOWN :

war and peace in rebel Cork ,
in the turbulent years 1916-21.

By Micheal O'Suilleabhain : published 1965.


BALLINGEARY BARRACKS .....



".......We were back in Shorten's Pub in Ballingeary ; we tried the 'drunken ' ruse again , to draw the Brits out from their Barracks . Myself and Dowd Cronin were the first two 'drunks' to leave the bar - the Black and Tans on the wall were watching us as we 'fumbled' our way to the bicycles ......."



" I had 'succeeded' in getting Dowd to take hold of his bicycle . Both himself and the bike rocked perilously while one of the Black and Tans continued to laugh uproariously . Suddenly , the bike, which he held awkardly by the near handlebar , leaned over too much and Dowd fell with it . He put out his hands , let the bike drop , and saved himself from a heavy fall by so doing . But the near pedal struck him sharply on the shins . It was a painful crack , and Dowd had a fiery nature and an explosive temper . The Black and Tan shouted with laughter . Dowd jumped to his feet in a fury .

" What are you laughing at , you bastard , " he said , looking at the happy warrior on the wall . " I'll put you laughing at the other side of your mouth , " he added , his right hand reaching swiftly across his body and grasping his gun . I threw my arms around him and wheeled him about to face the pub . The long bright thirty-eight Smith and Wesson was out in his hand . " Dowd ," I said , " you'll ruin us ! " He slipped back the revolver . We could have managed the pair on the wall easily , and could even have taken their guns from them , but then we would have lost all our bicycles . For , had hostilities started thus , the fire from the barracks would , of course, have been directed on them . The wonder was that we did not lose them as things were , for the two Black and Tansmade themselves scarce immediately .

The door of the barracks was shut behind them and the steel shutters of the windows as well . Rifle muzzles appeared at loopholes . The others came out from the pub . Without undue haste , we took the bicycles and walked away with them ......."

(MORE LATER).



SEAN MacBRIDE : 1904 - 1988 .......

The following information was sent to '1169....' in mid-February last by a 'J.D. , Isle Of Mann ' ; we reproduce it here , in 15 parts . 'J.D.' assures us that he/she got the article from an American newspaper , in the late 1980's/early 1990's .

(2 of 15).


He was , first and foremost , an Irish nationalist and patriot. His mother , Maud Gonne , was one of the pioneers of the independence movement spanning from the last century (ie 19th Century) up to the 1940's . His father , Major John MacBride , was one of the sixteen leaders executed by the British after the 1916 Rising .

Sean MacBride's own involvement began at an early age . As a boy he was familiar with veteran Fenians like John O'Leary (who was his godfather) and when he and his mother lived in Paris, Roger Casement was a regular visitor . It was in France , where he was forced to remain during the First 'World' War , that Sean MacBride learned of the death of his father .

(MORE LATER).


Monday, March 08, 2004

GREAT TO BE BACK !



WE did'nt go anywhere in particular , just dossed 'round Dublin for a few days and caught up with that thing we have to do now and again to pay the bills .......

Our thanks to 'JUNIOR ' here in the Office for publishing a notice on '1169.....' each day , explaining our absence . He tells me the daily notice " helps to keep the Search Engine Spiders fed " (!)

Have'nt a bleedin' clue what he's on about , but our SHARON tells me he's a smart kid and knows his stuff . And our SHARON , (like yours) is never wrong .......



PATRICK EGAN - founder of 'The Land League' : 1841 - 1919 .


Ireland , 1841 ; Daniel O'Connell was the talk of the island - he was leading a campaign to " repeal the Act of Union ". However , it was known that O'Connell was not in favour of what he termed " separation " ie a free Ireland - instead , he was said to prefer " a close partnership between the two kingdoms ". He would have settled for two 'independent' legislatures , working together in 'common interest', under one (agreed) 'Monarch' .

The man was of a mind that such an approach would win-over English public opinion which , in turn , he reckoned, would bring pressure to bear on Westminster re the 'Irish question'(shades of John Hume's oft-repeated 'mantra' that the British are still in Ireland only because of the "terrorist threat" ; an integrationist ploy which Gerry Adams will , in time , use himself , as he is on the same path as O'Connell and Hume).

Between 1841 and 1951 , the population on this island fell by two million people ; approximately one million died and one million emigrated . Many of the latter died on their way to England , Scotland or America ; that forced exodus began in the same year that Patrick Egan was born .......

(MORE LATER).



WHERE MOUNTAINY MEN HAVE SOWN :

war and peace in rebel Cork ,
in the turbulent years 1916-21.

By Micheal O'Suilleabhain : published 1965.


BALLINGEARY BARRACKS .....


".......The twelve of us were waiting behind the gates of Colaiste na Mumhan , just outside the town of Ballingeary . We were waiting for word from Jer Carthy that the RIC / Black and Tan enemy had left their barracks ......."


" Suddenly Jer dashed in the gate on his bicycle . " There are six on the wall ," he said . The time had come . Quickly , but very smoothly , we got into line on the road and moved off without a hitch . Our pace increasing easily , we rounded the last corner at a high speed indeed . Soon we were rushing past the barracks . There was no one on the wall . Pat threw out his left hand slightly and swung into Shorten's Pub footpath again . Dismounting , he leaned his bike against the wall . We did likewise . " We'll have another drink ," he said . We disappeared inside the door . Again the innocuous drinks were ordered , and again we settled down to watch . Again the faces appeared at the barrack windows , watching for our next move . Another hour passed slowly .

Two Black and Tans came out , wearing their holstered revolvers . They sat jauntily on the wall , their legs dangling . Whistling inanely , they kept time with their heels clicking together . They looked a low type - possible their comrades would be glad to get rid of them , and had induced them to go out for that purpose . It was now approaching six o' clock and our prospects were poor . As a last effort it was decided that the majority would act in a very drunken manner whilst others , less 'drunk' , would be doing their best to take them home . We hoped that others of the British garrison might come out to enjoy the spectacle , or even try their hand at searching and questioning us . Dowd Cronin and I were to try first the effect on the two on the wall . We went through the doorway , Dowd protesting loudly while I held his arm . He did his part well . He swayed to the middle of the road the while he insisted that it was much too early to go home .

I was the youngest member of the party and therefore it appeared reasonable to the audience that I should be quite sober . The Black and Tans on the wall were now laughing immoderately at Dowd's antics and at my difficulty in trying to get him to come home with me ......."

(MORE LATER)>



SEAN MacBRIDE : 1904 - 1988 .

The following information was sent to '1169....' in mid-February last by a 'J.D. , Isle Of Man ' ; we reproduce it here , in 15 parts . 'J.D.' assures us that he/she got the article from an American newspaper , in the late 1980's/early 1990's .

(1 of 15).


Sean MacBride died on the 15th January 1988 ; he was laid to rest on Monday , 18th January 1988 , in Dublin . He leaves a legacy of inspiration and hope to the Irish people and to peoples the world over . His career was unique in Irish and global terms and was marked by a deep trait of individualism motivated by a desire to achieve national and international freedom . While Sean MacBride was an inspiration to most , to some he was a profound embarrassment . Many of those who flocked to pay public tribute to his memory would privately have little regret at his passing . In political terms what he stood for was fundamentally oppopsed to the direction the establishment in Ireland has taken .

MacBride's militant past and his activist present represented a challenge that could not easily be met , such was his stature . Fianna boy , IRA Volunteer , guerrilla fighter , gun-runner , republican prisoner , escapee , Chief of Staff of Oglaigh na hEireann and lifelong campaigner for civil , national and international rights , he remained an activist until the day he died .......

(MORE LATER).


Sunday, March 07, 2004

1169 AND COUNTING.......

The British 'Military Service No. 2 Bill 1918' / The first Irish Republican newspaper / 'Deasy's Act' 1861.......

Irish history , Irish politics ;.. back tomorrow , MONDAY 8th MARCH 2004 .