" A wealth of information..."

"1169 And Counting is a wealth of information on our Republican past and present , and demonstrates how the Irish political landscape , like that of any nation, will never be a black and white issue..."

(From the ‘e-Thursday’ section of the ‘Business Week’ supplement of the ‘Irish Independent’ , 21st August 2008.)



This blog was listed as one of the 'Finalists' in the '2016 current affairs/politics' category of the Littlewoods Ireland blog awards - but we didn't win the award. But not to worry -thanks to everyone involved for getting us to the final stage of the competition and sure we'll try again the next time!

Saturday, May 15, 2004

WILLIAM ROONEY , poet and journalist ; 1872-1901 .......


....... William Rooney died , aged 29 , on 6th May 1901 , in Dublin - he had wore himself out . His friend , Arthur Griffith later published material that William Rooney had left behind .......


The name ' William Rooney ' means little , if, indeed, anything , to most people today , as unfortunately is the case with so many other unsung hero's , who would , or could (and should) have lived completely different and possibly longer , more comfortable lives were it not for the political situation they were born into .

And that same political situation (ie British interference in Irish affairs) exists today ; how many more Irish men and women must endure the same fate as William Rooney and the countless others like him ? What is the potential being lost to this Irish Nation due to the continuing British military and political presence here ?

Whatever the loss , however it is judged or calculated - it is a crime against this proud country . If it is , as the Free Staters and their friends in the 'Establishment' tell us - "...over 800 years of crime , " then it is the Brits and the Free Staters that are the criminals , not Irish Republicans .......

(MORE LATER).



WHERE MOUNTAINY MEN HAVE SOWN :

war and peace in rebel Cork ,
in the turbulent years 1916-21.

By Micheal O'Suilleabhain : published 1965.

COOLNACAHERA and COOMNACLOHY .......


"....... Jim Grey and myself had fitted-out a second Lewis-Gun , which our Column Officer then handed to "X" , whom most of us suspected to be an informer ; during the ambush , he had the opportunity to use the weapon ......."


" But , leaving the Lewis-Gun , "X" ran and demoralised others around him . A young lad , Dick Kingston from Ballyvourney , picked-up the Lewis and brought it away . I used it afterwards and found it excellent - "X" alleged that it failed to work for him at the ambush . Across the road from his position were two labourer's cottages , which stood about forty yards apart and were screened from the road by a stone fence . Their acre plots were also enclosed by a similar fence . The cottages and plots were on a hillock which sloped to the south and west .

The British Auxiliaries had no option but to retire into and defend this ground when they were driven off the road ; the Macroom men were admirably posted to prevent them escaping or fighting their way to the south or west , and admirably well they did their task . Not alone did our lads hold the Brits in the plots , but finally their steady and accurate fire drove them uphill to the immediate environs of the cottage . A few men with Ned Neville of Rusheen occupied a hillock , the most easterly point of the Macroom men's positions . Once the Auxiliaries contemplated taking some of our lads on from behind them ; keeping away to the east , the Brits started to creep south . Ned shot down the leader and that finished that project for them .......

(MORE LATER).



THE CONVICTION OF WILLIAM QUINN .......


' William Quinn was recently jailed for life in Britain having been convicted of the murder of a London policeman on the basis of evidence and an identification which has given rise to considerable controversy . '


BY MICHAEL FARRELL .


(First published in 'MAGILL' magazine , April 1988 , page 18).


Reproduced here in 9 parts.

(2 of 9).



William Quinn was born into an Irish-American family in California . Moved by the events in the North of Ireland in 1969 - 1971 , he threw up his job in the U.S. post office and flew to Ireland to join the IRA . In April 1975 , he was arrested in Dublin and charged with assaulting a garda and with membership of the IRA ; he appeared at the 'Special Crimial' Court in May 1975 and was acquitted of the assault charge but convicted of IRA membership and jailed for a year .

Before Quinns imprisonment , in February 1975 , a British policeman , PC Adrian Blackledge , stopped a man in a West London street and was about to search him - the man ran away and when PC Stephen Tibble , who was off duty and passing the scene at the time , tried to stop him , the man shot PC Tibble dead .......

(MORE LATER).






Friday, May 14, 2004

WILLIAM ROONEY , poet and journalist ; 1872-1901 .......


....... William Rooney was mixing in Irish Republican 'dissident' circles (ie with the Fenians , IRB etc) , hoping to increase membership to the 'Gaelic League' , GAA and other similar organisations . He could understand where those 'dissidents' were coming from .......


When he was 28 years of age , William Rooney was in chronic bad health , but still politically active - he was openly condemning the very-limited 'offer' of so-called 'Home Rule' with which the British hoped to placate those opposed to their interference in this country and , both verbally and in his writing , took every opportunity to argue his point with those who would settle for 'Home Rule' or less . He was still travelling the country even though he was weak and sick...

...but the workload proved too much for him ; on the 6th May , 1901 , at only 29 years of age , William Rooney died in Dublin - he was physically and mentally worn out . Had he chosen a different path , he could have lived longer - but it was not in his structure to do so . His friend Arthur Griffith was later to collate un-seen material left behind by William Rooney , some of which were published in the year following his death (ie 1902).

Seven years later (1909) , the last of his material was published under the title 'Prose Writings'.......

(MORE LATER).



WHERE MOUNTAINY MEN HAVE SOWN :

war and peace in rebel Cork ,
in the turbulent years 1916-21.

By Micheal O'Suilleabhain : published 1965.

COOLNACAHERA and COOMNACLOHY .......


".......It was obvious to us that the force of British Auxiliaries had been 'tipped-off' about our intention to ambush them ; a member of our IRA Column , "X" , was thought to be responsible ......."


" "X" was involved , a few weeks later , in an incident which led to the murder of six of his comrades at Clogheen . That the creature who brought the murder-and-torture-gang to fall on his sleeping comrades did so to save himself is the most just and charitable thing I can say about him . For some argue that he had already started on his fiendish work as an informer . Certainly he had been over inquisitive about the names of people and places while with this IRA Column , but that proves nothing .

The poor wretch has enough to his account anyway , without adding to it , and I pray God that his like may not be there again . A few weeks before this day , Jim Grey and I , after considerable labour with indifferent tools , had fitted out and tested another Lewis-Gun . We had hoped to be allowed to use it in action against the enemy , and were astonished when "X" got charge of it ; nearly all of us doubted his integrity . So it was that , when the first shots were fired , "X" , stationed near the extreme end , was in a position to wreak the utmost destruction on the enemy massed under him ........

(MORE LATER).



THE CONVICTION OF WILLIAM QUINN .


' William Quinn was recently jailed for life in Britain having been convicted of the murder of a London policeman on the basis of evidence and an identification which has given rise to considerable controversy . '


BY MICHAEL FARRELL .


(First published in 'MAGILL' magazine , April 1988 , page 18).


Reproduced here in 9 parts.

(1 of 9).



" It must have been the worst ever identification anywhere in the whole world , " London lawyer Gareth Peirce says about the evidence that convicted American-born IRA supporter William Quinn of the murder of a London policeman in 1975 . Quinn was jailed for life at the Old Bailey .

William Quinn made legal history in October 1986 when he was extradited from the U.S. to face a charge of murdering British Police Constable Stephen Tibble in West London in February 1975 - a charge he denies . He was the first person ever extradited from the U.S. on an IRA-related charge .

Quinn also set something of a record for pre-trial detention . He had spent five years in jail in California fighting extradition and another seventeen months in custody in England before his trial .......

(MORE LATER).






Thursday, May 13, 2004

WILLIAM ROONEY , poet and journalist ; 1872-1901 .......


....... William Rooney was 'on thin ice' in regards to speaking in favour of using political agitation to achieve an 'Irish Ireland' ; the sporting bodies he was affiliated too were politically 'shy' .......


William Rooney was not fully convinced by the arguments put forward by the various leaderships within the broad-based 'Irish Ireland Society' groupings that certain other organisations were either too militant , too Republican , and/or too anti-British for them , and should be worked 'around' , as opposed to being worked 'with' .

But William Rooney seemed to have a better understanding of where the Fenians , the IRB and the Invincibles , amongst others , were coming from , and recognised in those groups a 'kindred spirit' of sorts . He saw nothing wrong in promoting the objectives of the GAA , the IAA ('Irish Athletic Association'), the 'Gaelic League' etc through those 'kindred spirits' (ie at their meetings , in their literature and newspapers and in any other 'vehicle' associated with the 'militants/dissidents').

To do so was not encouraged , to put it mildly , by others within the 'Irish Ireland Societies' .......

(MORE LATER).



WHERE MOUNTAINY MEN HAVE SOWN :

war and peace in rebel Cork ,
in the turbulent years 1916-21.

By Micheal O'Suilleabhain : published 1965.

COOLNACAHERA and COOMNACLOHY .......


".......During the ambush , one of the hostages held by the British troops dived for cover behind a fence ; a British Auxiliary stood over him , gun drawn , and shouted at the hostage to get up ......."


" Then the Brit standing over the hostage fell dead , shot by one of our riflemen . "Come over here" , shouted another Auxie to the hostage , "Lie down there" , he said , "don't go out . We'll get those fellows after a while . They only have rifles and revolvers ." Just then the Lewis-Gun spoke ... "By God !", shouted the Auxie, "the bastards have got the quick-firing gun !"

Everyone who saw the enemy coming could see that they knew they were nearing the spot where we were . Whether they actually saw something or someone near the extreme eastern or Macroom end of our position is a matter of doubt . At any rate two of them jumped off one of the slow-moving lorries and rushed up a heather-covered rock on the northern side . They were shot dead . Those two shots , of course, set the ball rolling . Had they crept forward another two-hundred yards , they would have been under fire from the whole IRA Column . As it happened , less than twenty men were engaged with the British troops , north of the road , while south of the road the Macroom men were fewer .

The fact that the enemy slowed down did much to rob us of speedy and complete victory ; that was but the fortune of war and we cannot blame the British Auxiliaries for acting on the information they had got that we were waiting for them . But the frailty of a member of our Column did far more that day to weaken our blows and at the same time strengthen the enemy - I am referring to the unspeakable "X" ......."

(MORE LATER).



PLASTIC BULLETS - The Child Killers .......



' In Northern Ireland (sic) six children were shot and killed with plastic bullets . Many more were severly injured . Jacinta O'Brien spoke to the families of these innocent victims of violence . '


From 'Womans Way' Magazine , 21st October 1983 , pages 11 , 12 , 13 , and 14 .


Reproduced here in 16 parts .


[16 of 16].


The Livingstone Family had been offered £1,500 then , days later , £17,500 , by the British Government to settle their case out of court ...

" We could'nt believe this , " said Mrs. Livingstone , " I did'nt understand how one judge could say our Julie was innocent and another judge say that she was'nt , but we were assured it could very easily happen . " The family took what was at the time the highest amount of compensation paid out for such an incident , but it was'nt a total victory ...

...No one was charged with Julie Livingstone's murder and the British Government has now indicated that it will be stopping the unemployment benefit the Livingstone family receive . There are five unemployed adults in the Livingstone household , which is normal for that area where there is fifty-per-cent unemployment .

" You can't win ," said Mrs. Livingstone looking out on her beautifully kept garden - her one joy in the strife-torn Lenadoon Estate .......

[END of ' PLASTIC BULLETS - The Child Killers .......'].

(Tomorrow - 'The Conviction of William Quinn' ; from 'Magill' magazine , 1988).






Wednesday, May 12, 2004

WILLIAM ROONEY , poet and journalist ; 1872-1901 .......


.......As well as a prolific writer , William Rooney was involved with various Irish Nationalist organisations .......


He was known to the Gaelic League , the Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA) [founded in 1884 to promote Irish sport] , as he was with a similar organisation , the 'Irish Athletic Association' (IAA) [founded in 1885].

Although still only in his mid-twenties (ie in the early 1890's), William Rooney suffered from ill-health but insisted on supporting what were referred to then as the 'Irish Ireland Societies' ie the GAA , the Gaelic League , the IAA and the various Nationalist newspapers that he wrote for ; he travelled the country , night and day , attending meetings of those groups and delivering speeches.

He was known to encourage the use of political agitation in the hope of achieving his objectives , even though such encouragement was frowned upon by , for one , the leadership of the Gaelic League , which took a deliberate decision to stay away from politics - some of those in the 'Irish Ireland Societies' were forming the opinion that William Rooney was 'stirring things up' .......

(MORE LATER).



WHERE MOUNTAINY MEN HAVE SOWN :

war and peace in rebel Cork ,
in the turbulent years 1916-21.

By Micheal O'Suilleabhain : published 1965.

COOLNACAHERA and COOMNACLOHY .......


".......Seven British Army lorries , led by a touring car , were coming at us - heavily-armed British Auxiliaries . Hughie , our Lewis-Gunner , adjusted the sights on his weapon . Two shots rang out ......."


" Hughie let fly - the 'glen serene' was now awake with a vengeance . The guns were pealing with a joyous abandon . It was a place of echoes , and one got the impression that other battles raged in the distance at every point of the compass . The sound struck the rocky face of Rahoona a mile away to the south-west and returned undiminished . An old man travelling a path along its side stooped in terror at the mouth of a beilic to get cover . A fox jumped from a rock on to his back and vanished into a cave . On Rahoona and away to the south on the hills of Kilnamartyra , people congregated to hear if not to see the battle .

A young man of military age remarked to my mother - " Is there not something inspiring in the crack of the rifle ? " " There is indeed , " she replied , " when one is a good distance away from it ! " The British Auxiliaries had heard of our trap ; there was plenty of evidence of that . As the British lorries approached our position , four hostages were ordered out to walk ahead of them - we saw them and realised what they were . Bullets passed them by to strike down Auxiliaries near them but the hostages remained unhurt . When the first burst of fire struck the British car and lorries , both Auxiliaries and hostages dived for shelter . One of the prisoners got in over a low fence , south of the road ...

... " Get out again , " shouted an Auxie to the prisoner , presenting a revolver ......."

(MORE LATER).



PLASTIC BULLETS - The Child Killers .......



' In Northern Ireland (sic) six children were shot and killed with plastic bullets . Many more were severly injured . Jacinta O'Brien spoke to the families of these innocent victims of violence . '


From 'Womans Way' Magazine , 21st October 1983 , pages 11 , 12 , 13 , and 14 .


Reproduced here in 16 parts .


(15 of 16).


Julie Livingstone's mother stated - " We decided to take the case to the High Court for damages - loss of years - not because we wanted the money , but because the publicity , we thought, would persuade the British Government to ban plastic bullets ." On the weekend before the court hearing , the family was offered £1,500 Sterling to settle out of court : " It was an insult to us and we refused to take the money , " said Mrs. Livingstone .

By the following Monday the offer had been upped to £17,500 Sterling : " At this stage we were all suffering from the pressure . Some of the witnesses were being harrassed and our solicitor advised us to take the money . He pointed out that the sum being offered would attract press attention of itself while on the other hand the verdict of the Coroner might be overturned , " said Mrs. Livingstone .......

(MORE LATER).






Tuesday, May 11, 2004

WILLIAM ROONEY , poet and journalist ; 1872-1901 .......


.......Although only in his twenties , William Rooney was well-known to Dublin newspaper Editors as a solid , reliable contributor of articles .......


His material was published in 'The Weekly Freeman's Journal' (1817 - 1924), 'The Dublin Times Pictorial' [which began publication as 'The Weekly Irish Times'] (1875 - 1941) and 'The United Irishman' newspaper , which he helped to establish with Arthur Griffith in early 1899 .

His name could also be found on poems and articles published in 'The Shamrock ' , 'The Northern Patriot' , 'Shan Van Vocht' , and 'The General Advertiser ' (1837 - 1923). Incidentally , the 'one-hit-wonders' of the day included 'The National Press' (1891 - 1892), 'The Sunday Herald' (1898), and 'The Evening News' (1887 - 1888).

William Rooney was a member and/or supporter of various Irish Nationalist organisations , such as the 'Gaelic League' (founded by Douglas Hyde in 1893 , to combat "the awful idea of complete Anglicization" of Irish society ; a tangent ! - Hyde was later to abandon the 'League' because he felt it was effectively coming-under the control of the IRB )- the 'Gaelic League' was established as a non-political organisation which concentrated on promoting the Irish language , Irish clothes, dancing , poetry , song and culture .

(MORE LATER).



WHERE MOUNTAINY MEN HAVE SOWN :

war and peace in rebel Cork ,
in the turbulent years 1916-21.

By Micheal O'Suilleabhain : published 1965.

COOLNACAHERA and COOMNACLOHY .......


".......Men from Macroom and Ballingeary laid in wait with us at the ambush site ; we had riflemen and a Lewis-Gun . Then we got the word - " They are coming .......""


" I relayed the warning across the road to Dan Corkery and his men , and also to Number Four Section behind my back . My eyes ran along the straight to where the surface of the road disappeared at the bend , then across a 'loop' to where it appeared again - and there they were ...

...I counted as they passed ; a touring car with seven British Army lorries behind it , close together . But they were coming - very , very slowly . There was something wrong - I lay down behind the Lewis-Gun , and brought the butt of it to my shoulder . I glanced along the sights to the corner of the road , and took off the safety-catch .

The touring car appeared from around the corner , at little more than a snail's pace ; then the leading British Army lorry came into sight . They must be suspicious , but nevertheless they edged forward . The second lorry was now in view and its occupants , British Auxiliaries , were standing as if ready to jump off the while they scrutinized the ground ahead of them . The third lorry appeared , and I heard a noise behind me ; it was Hughie , our Lewis-Gunner .

" Take the Lewis , " I said to him . " Were'nt you doing all right with it ! " he replied . He put the butt of it to his shoulder and sighted it up for himself ; just then two shots rang-out at the eastern end of our position : Hughie pressed the trigger ....... "

(MORE LATER).



PLASTIC BULLETS - The Child Killers .......



' In Northern Ireland (sic) six children were shot and killed with plastic bullets . Many more were severly injured . Jacinta O'Brien spoke to the families of these innocent victims of violence . '


From 'Womans Way' Magazine , 21st October 1983 , pages 11 , 12 , 13 , and 14 .


Reproduced here in 16 parts .


(14 of 16).


The Livingstone family were 'totally at sea' at the inquest into Julie's death , but fortunately the eldest girl in the family , Elizabeth , plucked up the courage to ask the Coroner for an adjournment and the hearing was re-held . Each time the family appeared in court , the Livingstone girls were treated with abuse by the British Army personnell present -

- " They jeered , made smart remarks and blew kisses at us and nobody tried to stop them . It was a farce and a joke, " is how Kathleen Livingstone terms the event . But Julie Livingstone's case was to make legal history in the North ; the Coroner decided that she was an innocent victim .......

(MORE LATER).






Monday, May 10, 2004

WILLIAM ROONEY , poet and journalist ; 1872-1901 .......


.......As a child in the CBS School in Great Strand Street in Dublin , in the late 19th Century , William Rooney became friends with a class-mate - Arthur Griffith .......


William Rooney left the CBS School and got a job as a solicitors clerk ; he and Arthur Griffith were regulars at the various societies and clubs in Dublin at that time , most of which had a Nationalist / Republican slant , such as the Leinster Literary Society and the Celtic Literary Society . These groups held meetings at which Irish culture , history , literature and music , were discussed .

As well as studying those subjects , and although by now only in his twenties , William Rooney was writing articles for newspapers and periodicals as well ; his writings were prominently featured in some of the then estimated 200 different titles which were in circulation in Dublin , alone , at the time (ie late 18th /early 19th Century), but some of these newspapers and periodicals were ephemeral (ie 'one-hit-wonders') and have left no known trace behind .......

(MORE LATER).



WHERE MOUNTAINY MEN HAVE SOWN :

war and peace in rebel Cork ,
in the turbulent years 1916-21.

By Micheal O'Suilleabhain : published 1965.

COOLNACAHERA and COOMNACLOHY .......


"....... 25th February , 1921 - our IRA Column left the farmhouse to establish an ambush position at Coolnacahera . I was in temporary charge of the Lewis-Gun ....... "


" Our Lewis-Gunner , Hughie , was due to join us any minute now . However , I laid the gun ready for action , and then had a look about me ; I was alone in a natural depression on top of a rock that commanded a wide field and a long stretch of road . On my left was John Patrick (Cronin) , number three in our Lewis-Gun section , next to him was Pat Mary Walsh (Cronin) , and next to Pat was John McCann MacSweeney , all sharp-shooting riflemen from Ballingeary . On my left front I could see Corney O'Sullivan , Jim Grey , Sean Murray , Patsy Lynch , my brother Pat , 'Sandow' and Jack Culhane .

I could see that the Macroom men were in their positions across the road ; it was a morning of bright sunshine and clear air with a little frost , and a stillness which made sound audible at a great distance . Suddenly I became aware of a complete silence - everyone I could see appeared to be listening intently . At first I could hear nothing , then I thought I heard a very faint singing noise . Soon I heard it distinctly but thought it came from a great distance . I wondered whether our signaller was yet at his post - we were hardly ten minutes in position at that stage . Then I heard a voice -

" Mick , Mick ! " : it came from my brother Pat's group . They also motioned me to cover , and the same voice added : " They are coming ......." "

(MORE LATER).



PLASTIC BULLETS - The Child Killers .......



' In Northern Ireland (sic) six children were shot and killed with plastic bullets . Many more were severly injured . Jacinta O'Brien spoke to the families of these innocent victims of violence . '


From 'Womans Way' Magazine , 21st October 1983 , pages 11 , 12 , 13 , and 14 .


Reproduced here in 16 parts .


(13 of 16).


Julie Livingstone was in hospital with head wounds caused by a plastic bullet ; her mother was told that Julie was in good condition , but she was not convinced that that was so ...


" I had such a terrible feeling that things were not right . I did'nt sleep a wink all night , " she recalled . The following day Julie Livingstone died as a result of complications . A heartbroken Mrs. Livingstone could'nt bear to attend the inquest on her daughter's death , but for her husband Archie and her daughters it was almost as traumatic as Julie's death itself - " We were kept standing in the corridor outside the court-room by a member of the RUC . He told us the hearing was'nt on yet ; by the time he let us in it was half over - most of the British soldiers had been questioned , " said Julie's sister , Kathleen .......

(MORE LATER).






Sunday, May 09, 2004

WILLIAM ROONEY , poet and journalist ; 1872-1901 .......



....... Ireland , 1872 ; bad times - low wages , shortage of work , sectarian riots .......


In that year (ie 1872), a baby was born in Dublin , and went to school at the CBS ('Christian Brothers School') in Great Strand Street ; as a child , William Rooney became best-friends with another young boy in his class - Arthur Griffith , who , in 1905 , was to establish the Sinn Fein organisation ....

.....a tangent - Griffith himself was an unlikely Irish Republican , and was perhaps better known in his day as , if not an actual capitalist , then an aspiring one ! He was a follower of Deak , the Hungarian author ; Griffith was of the opinion that Irish members of the British Parliament should withdraw from that institution , as he was opposed to the British legislating for internal Irish affairs .

However , Arthur Griffith was known to favour a dual monarchy system (ie as with Hungary and Austria) which would leave the British monarch as 'King of Ireland and England' , but with separate parliaments in both Countries . (...end of [this!] tangent ..)

Arthur Griffith died on 12th August , 1922 ; two weeks later , Michael Collins was killed in an IRA ambush .......

(MORE LATER).



WHERE MOUNTAINY MEN HAVE SOWN :

war and peace in rebel Cork ,
in the turbulent years 1916-21.

By Micheal O'Suilleabhain : published 1965.


COOLNACAHERA and COOMNACLOHY .


" The IRA Column left the old house at Clountycarty at an early hour , sometime about six a.m. It was the morning of 25th February 1921 . The Column had left about the same time every morning for the past fortnight , and returned at the same time when night fell . But the old house would be lonely again tonight without their songs and merry laughter , for they were destined not to return...

Their route was the same as that of the previous mornings , north-east across country , first through the bogs of Gurtanedin , across the Renanirree Road , upwards through Clohina of the stunted oak and holly groves , down Cappanahilla , along a boreen , past a disused farmhouse , along by hedges to cross the inches to the Sullane . Across the Sullane by Tom Murray's Steps , and cautiously upwards and fanning outwards to occupy a quarter-mile stretch of the Macroom-Ballyvourney Road , at Coolnacahera .

The Column crossed the road to the northern side and occupied the full length of the ambush position . A small IRA Column from the Seventh / Macroom Battalion occupied the only suitable positions on the southern side . I was in charge of the Lewis-Gun for the time being , Hughie having gone home the night before ......."

(MORE LATER).



PLASTIC BULLETS - The Child Killers .......



' In Northern Ireland (sic) six children were shot and killed with plastic bullets . Many more were severly injured . Jacinta O'Brien spoke to the families of these innocent victims of violence . '


From 'Womans Way' Magazine , 21st October 1983 , pages 11 , 12 , 13 , and 14 .


Reproduced here in 16 parts .


(12 of 16).



The British soldiers opened fire because word had come through to the Lenadoon Estate that hunger-striker Francis Hughes had died and the women were out banging their bin lids . Witnesses swore that there was no riot in progress ; the banging of bin-lids is a perfectly normal reaction from the women when something happens that they don't like . It's regarded as a peaceful form of protest .

After being taken to hospital with head wounds , Julie Livingstone's parents were told that she was in good condition , but Mrs. Livingstone was not covinced .......

(MORE LATER).