" A wealth of information..."

"1169 And Counting is a wealth of information on our Republican past and present , and demonstrates how the Irish political landscape , like that of any nation, will never be a black and white issue..."

(From the ‘e-Thursday’ section of the ‘Business Week’ supplement of the ‘Irish Independent’ , 21st August 2008.)



IRISH BLOG AWARDS 2017 - we made it to the finalists page last year but never got to the stage :- ( 'cause not enough of ye feckers out there voted for us! So we're gonna give ya a second chance - the blog awards this year will be held on Thursday, October 5th (2017) in The Academy, Middle Abbey Street, in Dublin city centre, and we would appreciate if you could keep an eye here and give us a vote when ya can. Or else we'll get our 'Junior' to put up a pay wall and then ye will be sorry...!


Friday, December 24, 2004

THE BOUNDARY COMMISSION , 1921-1925 .......
A British 'sleight-of-hand' which caused a mutiny within British forces in Ireland.......

....... a Boundary Commission was included under Article 12 of the 1921 Treaty of Surrender (which was signed in Downing Street , London , on Tuesday 6th December 1921 ).......

When this Boundary Commission was to be set-up , it was to be 'Chaired' by Justice Feetham , a South African Judge , and a good friend of the British 'Establishment' - it may well have been a ' toothless body ' , as Winston Churchill , the then British 'Colonial Secretary to Ireland' considered it to be , but sure it was no harm to have its Chairperson in your pocket , too !

During the first three years of the existance of the Irish Free State , those running same poured all their resources into simply staying 'alive' ; it was not until 1924 that the Staters in Leinster House requested that the Boundary Commission should come into being - this opened-up old wounds for the Brits . Westminster was well aware that this issue was an 'open sore' for all concerned - the Staters ( except Michael Collins and , probably , those close to him , who knew better) were expecting 'the earth' (!) while the Unionists had been promised 'no change' .

On hearing of this request by the Free Staters to Westminster , the Stormont (ie the Six-County 'parliament' established by the British) 'Prime Minister' , 'Sir' James Craig , let it be known that , as he was not one of the signatories to the 1921 Treaty , he did not feel bound by its stipulations (re the Boundary Commission) and would have nothing to do with the establishment of such a body .

The Brits themselves were'nt really in favour of setting-up the Boundary Commission either , and no attempt was made to persuade 'Sir' Craig to take part in it by nominating a representative to that proposed body (as had been agreed in the 1921 Treaty)>/i> - instead , the Brits took it on themselves to nominate a person to sit on the Commission on Stormont's behalf .......

(MORE LATER).


PLASTIC BULLETS.......

First published in 'IRIS' Magazine , Volume 1 , Number 2 , November 1981 .
In April 1981, 1,955 plastic bullets were fired - a rate of one every 20 minutes over the month . This was more than in the whole of 1980 .
Plastic bullets do not arouse the indignation that normal bullets excite . Over 7,000 have been fired since the death of Bobby Sands (ie May 1981 - November 1981) .
The intent of the British is that the mass protests can be shot off the streets without international opinion responding , as it would to news of large numbers of civilians being shot-up with buck shot or live rounds in , for example , South Africa .

Cases since April 1981 ; ' * ' denotes plastic bullet death .
Re-published here in 11 parts .
[11 of 11].

Concerned by general reports of the deaths and injuries , sketched out above , an Independent International Tribunal recently came together in Belfast to examine use of the plastic bullet weapon . Tribunal members attending the evidence sessions , chaired by the Association for Legal Justice , were : Dr. Tim Shallice , respected English neuro-psychologist ; Dr. Antoine Comte , a French lawyer ; Denis Dillion , the District Attorney for Nassau County , USA ; and Republican New York Councillor , Peter King .

They found that " these lethal weapons " should be banned immediately ; like many others , they found that the plastic bullet is not being used as a riot control weapon but rather as a community control device . The people of the six counties walk in fear on their own streets .

Only international intervention can end the 'officially' sanctioned mis-use of this murderous weapon .

[END of ' PLASTIC BULLETS ... '].
(Next -" WE FIGHT ON " , say IRA Chiefs ; from 1989).


NORAID'S UNTOLD MILLIONS .......

Irish-Americans have long had complex and contradictory relations with Ireland and the 'Irish Question' . On Saint Patrick's Day , all the ambiguities are apparent .
This year (ie 1987) , on Saint Patrick's Day , the latest book by Irish writer , Jack Holland was published in New York , exploring the tangled web of links between Irish-Americans and the Irish in Ireland , the IRA and the Irish government .

' The American Connection ' describes the activities of leading Irish-American politicians , of romanticising writers and of gun-runners .
In this edited extract , the author tells how Noraid was set up and how it has resisted pressures to disclose all the sources and uses of its funds .
First published in 'MAGILL' magazine , April 1987 .
Re-published here in 31 parts .
(8 of 31).

Some sixteen months after its formation , NORAID claimed chapters in Manhattan , Queens , Staten Island , the Bronx , Long Island , Connecticut , New Jersey , Washington , D.C. , Baltimore , Philadelphia , Boston , Buffalo , Chicago , St. Louis and Detroit .

There were soon some seventy branches throughout the U.S. ; the greatest support was concentrated in the New York area , where the Committee claimed two thousand members . It received steady support from the older , more established Irish-American organisations , such as the Ancient Order of Hibernians (AOH) , which runs the St. Patrick's Day Parade .

NORAID was filing six-monthly returns with the U.S. Justice Department in Washington , giving details of its fund-raising activities . The figures provide a good barometer of Irish-American re-action to British tactics ; from August 1971 to the end of January 1972 , the INAC reported collecting $128,099 . In the next six-month period , ending in July 1972 , and encompassing the Bloody Sunday killings , collections of $313,000 were recorded .

The next six months showed a considerable drop , with a reported collection of $150,000 ; the period coincided with the height of the IRA's car-bombing campaign , which resulted in heavy civilian casualties , and may have cost the IRA support in America reflected in NORAID's returns .

(MORE LATER).
Beannachtai na Nollag ; Christmas greetings and a Happy New Year to all our readers . From John , Sharon and our 'Junior' . Back Monday , as usual - slan go foill anois ).






Thursday, December 23, 2004

THE BOUNDARY COMMISSION , 1921-1925 .......
A British 'sleight-of-hand' which caused a mutiny within British forces in Ireland.......

....... a row had broken-out between the Irish and British negotiating teams who were attempting to put together the 1921 'Treaty of Surrender' - the disagreement was over the form of words to be used in an 'Oath of Allegiance' which the Brits had demanded that the Irish should take . Both sides submitted proposals , but this led to further rows ; eventually , one of those on the Irish side , Gavan Duffy , could take no more .......

Gavan Duffy stood up at the negotiating table and stated - " Our difficulty is to come into the Empire , looking at all that has happened in the past . " With that , one of the Brits , Austen Chamberlain , is reported to have leapt to his feet and shouted " That ends it ! " ; negotiations closed down . That was around early/mid October 1921 - 'feelers' were put out by both camps , and the talking started again , and continued until Monday 5th December 1921 when the then British Prime Minister , Lloyd George , announced to the Irish side that he had written two letters , one of which would now be sent to his people in Ireland ; one letter told of a peaceful outcome to the negotiations , the other told of a breakdown in the negotiations - Lloyd George stated that if he sent the latter one " ... it is war ,
and war within three days . Which letter am I to send ? "

That 'War Letter' meeting took place on the afternoon of Monday 5th December 1921 ; at around 7pm that same evening , the Irish team left that Downing Street meeting to discuss the matter between themselves and returned to Downing Street later that night - at ten minutes past two on the morning of Tuesday 6th December 1921 , Michael Collins and his team accepted 'Dominion status' and an Oath which gave " allegiance " to the Irish Free State and " fidelity " to the British Crown - the Treaty was signed . Within six months a Civil War was raging in Ireland , between the British-supported Free Staters and the Irish Republicans who did not accept that 'Treaty' . And , today , 83 years after that signing , the struggle continues ...

However - that was the 1921 Treaty of Surrender - included in which , under Article 12 , was an 'agreement' to establish a Boundary Commission .......

(MORE LATER).


PLASTIC BULLETS.......

First published in 'IRIS' Magazine , Volume 1 , Number 2 , November 1981 .
In April 1981, 1,955 plastic bullets were fired - a rate of one every 20 minutes over the month . This was more than in the whole of 1980 .
Plastic bullets do not arouse the indignation that normal bullets excite . Over 7,000 have been fired since the death of Bobby Sands (ie May 1981 - November 1981) .
The intent of the British is that the mass protests can be shot off the streets without international opinion responding , as it would to news of large numbers of civilians being shot-up with buck shot or live rounds in , for example , South Africa .

Cases since April 1981 ; ' * ' denotes plastic bullet death .
Re-published here in 11 parts .
(10 of 11).

August 21st , 1981 . Martin O'Neill , 9 years of age , Ardoyne , Belfast . Shot by RUC at twenty-five yards range . Martin was struck in the face ; luckily , the plastic bullet only grazed him and he 'escaped' with a large graze and acute shock .

August 21st , 1981 . Dermot Gallagher , 11 years of age , Twinbrook , Belfast . Shot by British soldier ; Dermot was nowhere near a riot but was returning home from his local shop . His skull was fractured by the bullet .

August 21st , 1981 . Moya Quinn , 15 years of age , from Dermott Hill , Belfast . Shot by RUC ; Moya was badly bruised about the neck .

August 28th , 1981 . Paul Corr , 12 years of age , Beechmount , Belfast . Shot by British Royal Marine Commandos from a passing open-back landrover . The downward-travelling plastic bullet hit Paul on the side of his nose tearing part of it off and carried on down to the roof of his mouth , shattering and ripping out his pallet and driving his teeth down into his mouth . Paul was coming home from his local sweet shop when shot . There was no riot going on in the area .

Most of these people , young and old , were shot in non-riot situations ; many more are hit and receive treatment secretly because of fear of harassment . Thousands survive with lesser but painful injuries - thousands more are lucky enough not to be hit . Many British soldiers and RUC men 'doctor' their plastic bullets by inserting razor blades , jagged bottle tops and slivers of glass .

Most people are shot with these terrible weapons in a casual manner - no British soldier or RUC man has ever been charged for misuse of these weapons .......

(MORE LATER).


NORAID'S UNTOLD MILLIONS .......

Irish-Americans have long had complex and contradictory relations with Ireland and the 'Irish Question' . On Saint Patrick's Day , all the ambiguities are apparent .
This year (ie 1987) , on Saint Patrick's Day , the latest book by Irish writer , Jack Holland was published in New York , exploring the tangled web of links between Irish-Americans and the Irish in Ireland , the IRA and the Irish government .

' The American Connection ' describes the activities of leading Irish-American politicians , of romanticising writers and of gun-runners .
In this edited extract , the author tells how Noraid was set up and how it has resisted pressures to disclose all the sources and uses of its funds .
First published in 'MAGILL' magazine , April 1987 .
Re-published here in 31 parts .
(7 of 31).

When NORAID registered with FARA initially it named the Northern Aid Committee , Belfast , as its principal . But as NORAID's activities in America increased throughout the early 1970's , the 'Justice and State Departments' adopted a more stringent attitude towards it , and stepped up their investigation of the Committee in order to demonstrate that it was in fact acting under the control of the IRA .

According to Michael Flannery , NORAID " spread like wildfire ... " in the first years of its existence . However , its initial effort to get money across to Ireland was marred by failure ; the first cheque , for $2,500 , was sent through a New York bank - it never arrived . NORAID claims the bank destroyed it because it was told the money was for " subversive purposes ... " .

The Committee collected clothes as well as money ; Aer Lingus transported the clothes - " They took tons of clothes for us , " according to Michael Flannery , " hundreds of blankets , baby clothing direct from the manufacturers . " But he explains that the Aer Lingus clothes shipments stopped after some of the garments were damaged because the airline had the cargo fumigated .

(MORE LATER).






Wednesday, December 22, 2004

THE BOUNDARY COMMISSION , 1921-1925 .......
A British 'sleight-of-hand' which caused a mutiny within British forces in Ireland.......

....... in their desire to appease their supporters in the Six Occupied Counties of Ireland , Westminster's Winston Churchill stated that it was " absurd " to believe that the Boundary Commission would find against them ; the then British Chancellor of the Exchequer , Austen Chamberlain , was even more blatant .......

Austen Chamberlain 'reminded' the Unionists that they had , in effect , control of the " impartial Chairperson ... " of the Boundary Commission ! Indeed , it was the same Mr. Chamberlain who , during the negotiations with the (then) Irish Republican side insisted that they (the Irish) should take an " Oath of Allegiance to the (British) Crown ..." as part of the 1921 Treaty of Surrender .

Chamberlain was adamant that an Oath should be taken , so the soon-to-be Free Staters put forward the following form of words to the Brits -

- " I ....... , do solemnly swear true faith and allegiance to the Constitution of the Irish Free State , to the Treaty of the Association and to recognise the King of Great Britain as Head of the Associated States . "

But this was'nt a big enough 'climb-down' to suit the Brits ; they insisted that their form of words would hane to be used -

- " I ....... , do solemnly swear true faith and allegiance to the Constitution of the Irish Free State as by law established and that I will be faithful to His Majesty King George V , his heirs and successors by law , in virture of the common citizenship of Ireland with Great Britain and her adherence to and membership of the group of nations forming the British Commonwealth of Nations . "

This was 'a bridge too far' for the Irish ; further disagreement ensued between them and the British negotiating team over this 'Oath of Allegiance' and , finally , in exasperation , one of those from the Irish side , Gavan Duffy , could take no more - he stood up at the negotiating table and made a short statement to the Brits .......

(MORE LATER).


PLASTIC BULLETS.......

First published in 'IRIS' Magazine , Volume 1 , Number 2 , November 1981 .
In April 1981, 1,955 plastic bullets were fired - a rate of one every 20 minutes over the month . This was more than in the whole of 1980 .
Plastic bullets do not arouse the indignation that normal bullets excite . Over 7,000 have been fired since the death of Bobby Sands (ie May 1981 - November 1981) .
The intent of the British is that the mass protests can be shot off the streets without international opinion responding , as it would to news of large numbers of civilians being shot-up with buck shot or live rounds in , for example , South Africa .

Cases since April 1981 ; ' * ' denotes plastic bullet death .
Re-published here in 11 parts .
(9 of 11).

August 1st , 1981 (Day of Kevin Lynch's death) . Pauline Quigley , 16 years of age , New Lodge , Belfast . Shot in head at point-blank range by British soldier . Pauline received a hair-line fracture to her skull , with four stitches on the outside .

August 1st , 1981 . Vincent McGee , 34 years of age , Belfast . Shot by British soldier at point-blank range . Vincent suffered permanent kidney damage .

August 2nd , 1981 (Day of Kieran Doherty's death) . Patricia McGivern , 33 years of age , mother-of-three , Belfast . Shot by a British soldier from two feet . Several tendons were severed in her right hand and her flesh was torn away .

August 2nd , 1981 . James Kavanagh , 69 years of age , Lower Falls , Belfast . Shot from passing British Army armoured car ; James lives near Patricia McGivern . His lower left leg was severely bruised . Because of his age he will require medical treatment for a long time .

August 9th , 1981 * (10th Anniversary of introduction of internment without trial) . Peter Magennis , 40 years of age , father-of-five , Bawnmore , Belfast . Peter was shot through the window of his home by a passing RUC landrover patrol . Peter died . He was the seventh to be murdered in this recent phase . Like the others he was nowhere near a riot when killed .

(MORE LATER).


NORAID'S UNTOLD MILLIONS .......

Irish-Americans have long had complex and contradictory relations with Ireland and the 'Irish Question' . On Saint Patrick's Day , all the ambiguities are apparent .
This year (ie 1987) , on Saint Patrick's Day , the latest book by Irish writer , Jack Holland was published in New York , exploring the tangled web of links between Irish-Americans and the Irish in Ireland , the IRA and the Irish government .

' The American Connection ' describes the activities of leading Irish-American politicians , of romanticising writers and of gun-runners .
In this edited extract , the author tells how Noraid was set up and how it has resisted pressures to disclose all the sources and uses of its funds .
First published in 'MAGILL' magazine , April 1987 .
Re-published here in 31 parts .
(6 of 31).

The FBI also noted that the Irish Northern Aid Committee had registered under the Foreign Agents Registration Act (FARA) on January 14th , 1971 , less than a year after its formation . Since 1938 , FARA has been used to compel any person or organisation deemed to be acting as an agent for a " foreign principal " to register as such with the U.S. Attorney General .

The name of the 'foreign principal' has to be disclosed , as do other details about the relationship to that 'principal' and the nature of the activities undertaken on its behalf . These must be furnished on registration , and every six months following ; if money is collected for the 'foreign principal' , the amount raised must be filed , as well as details of how it was collected . All disbursements in connection with the 'foreign principal' must also be disclosed .

FARA's statutes demand that any written material of a political nature produced by the agent must be designated as " foreign political propaganda ." Registration allows the authorities to mount unannounced searches , without warrants , of the agent's financial records and correspondence .......

(MORE LATER).






Tuesday, December 21, 2004

THE BOUNDARY COMMISSION , 1921-1925 .......
A British 'sleight-of-hand' which caused a mutiny within British forces in Ireland.......

....... when (pro-Brit) Stormont 'Prime Minister' 'Sir' James Craig heard of Michael Collins' boast (ie- ' We'll get back almost half of the Six Counties [by using the Boundary Commission] ... ') , he 'lost the head'.......

Craig stated that if the Boundary Commission " were to make anything more than the very minutest change in our boundary , the inevitable result of that would be bloodshed and chaos of the worst description . I will never give in to any re-arrangement of the boundary that leaves our Ulster (sic) area less than it is under the Government of Ireland Act . "

The Brits could see a situation developing in which they might have to use force against one side or the other - ie against the Unionists to make them accept the ruling of the Boundary Commission , or against the Free Staters in the Leinster House 'parliament' in Dublin , to make them accept that the Boundary Commission was just a 'talking shop' ; and , mindful of the fact that the Brits have no friends , only interests , it suited Westminster , this time , to support the Unionists .

Winston Churchill , the then British 'Colonial Secretary to Ireland' , stated that the possibility of the Boundary Commission " reducing " what he called " Northern Ireland (sic) to its preponderatingly Orange (ie Unionist) areas (is) an extreme and absurd supposition , far beyond what those who signed the [1921] Treaty meant . "

Also , Austen Chamberlain , the then British Chancellor of the Exchequer , went even further in their desire to appease the Unionists .......

(MORE LATER).


PLASTIC BULLETS.......

First published in 'IRIS' Magazine , Volume 1 , Number 2 , November 1981 .
In April 1981, 1,955 plastic bullets were fired - a rate of one every 20 minutes over the month . This was more than in the whole of 1980 .
Plastic bullets do not arouse the indignation that normal bullets excite . Over 7,000 have been fired since the death of Bobby Sands (ie May 1981 - November 1981) .
The intent of the British is that the mass protests can be shot off the streets without international opinion responding , as it would to news of large numbers of civilians being shot-up with buck shot or live rounds in , for example , South Africa .

Cases since April 1981 ; ' * ' denotes plastic bullet death .
Re-published here in 11 parts .
(8 of 11).

July 9th , 1981 . Martin Tumelty (brother of Sean - see this list , May 30th) , Divis Flats , Belfast . Martin was shot in the head by the RUC - fortunately at long range . He suffered severe facial bruising .

July 22nd , 1981 . Brian McDonnell , 26 years of age , Springhill , Belfast . Shot by British soldiers at point-blank range while standing at door of his taxi . He suffered from extensive bruising to his back .

July 24th , 1981 * . Peter Doherty , 40 years of age , Divis Flats , Belfast . Shot by British Royal Marine Commandos ; Peter was standing inside the window of his own flat when hit . He died a week later from massive head injuries .

July 27th , 1981 . Martin Rooney , 13 years of age , Divis Flats , Belfast . Shot by British soldiers while coming home from working on a milk-round . A passing lorry which was taking Martin to hospital was delayed by British soldiers : Martin was taken to hospital suffering from a fractured skull .

(MORE LATER).


NORAID'S UNTOLD MILLIONS .......

Irish-Americans have long had complex and contradictory relations with Ireland and the 'Irish Question' . On Saint Patrick's Day , all the ambiguities are apparent .
This year (ie 1987) , on Saint Patrick's Day , the latest book by Irish writer , Jack Holland was published in New York , exploring the tangled web of links between Irish-Americans and the Irish in Ireland , the IRA and the Irish government .

' The American Connection ' describes the activities of leading Irish-American politicians , of romanticising writers and of gun-runners .
In this edited extract , the author tells how Noraid was set up and how it has resisted pressures to disclose all the sources and uses of its funds .
First published in 'MAGILL' magazine , April 1987 .
Re-published here in 31 parts .
(5 of 31).

The U.S. authorities have taken a different view ; they have maintained , along with the British and Irish governments , that NORAID is really an IRA front , and that its money goes into the pockets of gun-dealers and gun-runners .

When Daithi O Conaill and Joe Cahill arrived in America , their visits were monitored - the FBI noted that O Conaill had come as a representative of the "Provisional IRA" and a "member of the army council," the organisation's ruling body . Later that year Joe Cahill returned , and from mid-November to December 6 he visited Chicago , San Francisco , Cleveland , Boston , Yonkers , and Philadelphia . The FBI source named Cahill as a "sponsor" of the 'Northern Aid Committee' in Belfast .

On July 10th , 1970 , when NORAID held one of its first demonstrations , near the United Nations Buildings in New York , the FBI was there to watch .......

(MORE LATER).






Monday, December 20, 2004

THE BOUNDARY COMMISSION , 1921-1925 .......
A British 'sleight-of-hand' which caused a mutiny within British forces in Ireland.......

....... Voices were raised at a meeting to discuss the Boundary Commission , held on 2nd February 1922 ; the meeting broke down abruptly with no agreement reached . However , the Unionists claimed that the meeting was a success from their point of view , while Michael Collins (speaking for the Free Staters) claimed that that same meeting was a success from their point of view .......

The (pro-British) Unionists were told that the Boundary Commission was only set-up to ease the passage of the 1921 Treaty of Surrender amongst hesitant (soon-to-be , at the time) Free Staters who , in turn , were told by the Brits (and by Collins and other Free State leaders) that the Boundary Commission would eventually conclude that two or three of the (British partitioned and occupied) Six Counties would be 'returned' to the Free State thereby making the remaining (British occupied) counties unviable for Westminster to maintain , financially and militarily .

Indeed , the whole episode is somewhat reminisent , in this scribblers mind anyway , of Gerry Adams and the 'T.U.A.S.' document , which was issued (on behalf of the Provo leadership) during one of the many 'discussions' (in 1994 / 1995) with the Brits and the Free Staters : those latter two groups were told by Adams that the PIRA-approved 'T.U.A.S.' method meant seeking a United Ireland by a Totally Un-Armed Strategy , whereas Adams' own cannon-fodder , PIRA volunteers , were assured that 'T.U.A.S.' stood for Tactial Use of Armed Struggle !

Adams and his colleagues in the Provo leadership had learned well from their tete-a-tetes with their pay-masters ! However - end of that small 'tangent' ; when (pro-Brit) Stormont 'Prime Minister' , 'Sir' James Craig , heard of Michael Collins' boast (ie " We'll get back almost half of the Six Counties ...") he 'lost the head' - Westminster was told "... there will be bloodshed and chaos .." .......

(MORE LATER).


PLASTIC BULLETS.......

First published in 'IRIS' Magazine , Volume 1 , Number 2 , November 1981 .
In April 1981, 1,955 plastic bullets were fired - a rate of one every 20 minutes over the month . This was more than in the whole of 1980 .
Plastic bullets do not arouse the indignation that normal bullets excite . Over 7,000 have been fired since the death of Bobby Sands (ie May 1981 - November 1981) .
The intent of the British is that the mass protests can be shot off the streets without international opinion responding , as it would to news of large numbers of civilians being shot-up with buck shot or live rounds in , for example , South Africa .

Cases since April 1981 ; ' * ' denotes plastic bullet death .
Re-published here in 11 parts .
(7 of 11).

June 12th , 1981 . Sarah Begley , 43 years of age , Unity Fats , Belfast . Shot by the RUC . Sarah was hit from close range . She suffered a broken jaw and sixty stitches to her face , and may lose her left eye if follow-up surgery is not successful . She was going in the door of her flat when hit .

June 17th , 1981 . Michael McAlorum , 10 years of age , Turf Lodge , Belfast . Shot from passing British Army armoured car . Michael was playing with his friends when hit . He received a depressed fractured skull in the incident .

June 25th , 1981 . McKevin family , Moyard , Belfast . A plastic bullet was fired into their home while they were sleeping .

July 8th , 1981 *: day of Joe McDonnell's death . Nora McCabe , 29 years of age , mother-of-three , Belfast . Her brother , Patrick Cosgrove , is in H5-Block , Long Kesh . Shot from passing RUC vehicle while walking near the Belfast National H-Block/Armagh Committee Office . Hit in the head at close range , Nora died afterwards . She was shot a hundred yards from her home and was not near any rioting .

(MORE LATER).


NORAID'S UNTOLD MILLIONS .......

Irish-Americans have long had complex and contradictory relations with Ireland and the 'Irish Question' . On Saint Patrick's Day , all the ambiguities are apparent .
This year (ie 1987) , on Saint Patrick's Day , the latest book by Irish writer , Jack Holland was published in New York , exploring the tangled web of links between Irish-Americans and the Irish in Ireland , the IRA and the Irish government .

' The American Connection ' describes the activities of leading Irish-American politicians , of romanticising writers and of gun-runners .
In this edited extract , the author tells how Noraid was set up and how it has resisted pressures to disclose all the sources and uses of its funds .
First published in 'MAGILL' magazine , April 1987 .
Re-published here in 31 parts .
(4 of 31).

Originally , NORAID was linked with an organisation called the 'Northern Aid Committee' , based in Belfast ; this , in turn , had been set-up by the Republicans in the wake of the riots in 1969 . Joe Cahill and another leading IRA man , Sean Keenan , from Derry , were its sponsors . It was supposed to handle the money sent from NORAID .

After a few years , the Belfast Northern Aid Committee was replaced by the Green Cross , which was part of An Cumann Cabhrach , the organisation for dependents of IRA prisoners . NORAID has always maintained that its relationship is with these organisations and not directly with the IRA . NORAID's purpose , insists Michael Flannery , - " was to help and clothe the people of the North . " But he says that " we have no stipulations as to how the money we send is to be spent . "

At the same time , he denies that the money goes to buy weapons for the IRA : " I am heart and soul behind the IRA , " he asserts easily , " we should be shouting IRA from every housetop . It's the only way peace will come to Ireland . " But he is quick to add - " At no time in the present have I had any connection with the IRA . " He admits he met with Daithi O Conaill and others , but only as representatives of Sinn Fein , the 'political wing of the IRA' , of which O Conaill was a Vice-President .......

(MORE LATER).